Business in local authority and copyright
    Chapter 11 Judicial Precedents

    11. Judicial Precedents


    (Outline of the case)
    The defendant, an official of the Social Welfare Agency of the government, reproduced in and transmitted in an interactive way to the public from the Agency's LAN system (electronic bulletin board of newspaper/journal articles) a journal article of the plaintiff, a journalist.
    The plaintiff claimed to the defendant the deletion of the article, the preventive cessation of the use of all his works, and compensation for the damage, asserting that the said act infringed the plaintiff's rights of reproduction and public transmission. The defendant asserted that the said act of reproduction was permitted by Paragraph 1, Article 42 of the Copyright Law as the reproduction for "internal use by administrative organs" to "the extent deemed necessary".
    The Court judged that the act of storing the work within the LAN system clearly constituted infringement of the right of public transmission (also covering the act of making transmittable in the case of interactive transmission) because Paragraph 1, Article 42 of the Copyright Law, which provided for limitation on the right of reproduction in specific cases, did not apply to the right of public transmission (also covering the act of making transmittable in the case of interactive transmission). The Court also judged that, in substantial terms, the act of storing the work within the LAN system in order to transmit it to a number of people in the internal divisions of the Social Insurance Agency, the Social Insurance Institute, the Administration Center of the Social Insurance Agency, the local social insurance centers and the local social insurance bureaus was not covered by the said provision of the Copyright Law, which provided for limited cases truly necessary for internal use.

    (Points)
    The points of this case were (1) whether the act of storing the journal article in the LAN system of the Social Insurance Agency constituted infringement of the right of reproduction (Article 21) and/or the right of public transmission, and (2) whether the act was covered by the limitation provision of Paragraph 1, Article 42 of the Copyright Law.
    As the act of storing various data and works in digital format prevails, attention should be paid to the fact that reproducing a work in a LAN system without authorization constitutes infringement of the right of reproduction unless it is covered by any limitation provision of the Copyright Law, and also, that the act constitutes infringement of the right of public transmission if the LAN system covers plural premises and is accessible by a number of specific people.
    The Court judged that the interpretation of Paragraph 1, Article 42 should not be expanded easily, which seems appropriate.




    (Outline of the case)
    In the public relations magazine which was planned by Prefecture A and published by the Association of Prefecture A's Municipalities, seven municipalities' bulletins and pictures, which were copied from tourism pamphlets, were reproduced. The photographer who took the pictures claimed, against Prefecture A and the Association of Prefecture A's Municipalities, damages, asserting that the copyrights of the pictures are owned by the photographer and the reproduction in the magazine constitutes an infringement. The court approved the claim, judging that the copyright is owned by the photographer.

    (Points)
    This litigation could have been avoided if Prefecture A had obtained authorization of the photographer when it planned the magazine, checking who owned the copyrights of the bulletins and pictures and whether there had been any contract of copyright transfer between the photographer and the municipalities.
    Requesting the creation of a work such as a picture, paying the money, does not mean the transfer of copyright, and therefore, in order to avoid any future problem, it is better to make a written contract on the ownership of copyright.
    However, in another precedent on a similar case, in which the ownership of copyright was disputed in terms of an illustration ordered by a city for a poster and a pamphlet, the court judged that the copyright had been transferred to the city, considering the contract which said, "¥ 300,000 should be paid for the use of the illustration, and the use of three times, all the rights will be transferred to the city" as well as the fact that, after the use of three times, the original illustration was submitted to and stored in the city.




    Copyright-related Organizations for Contact


    ● Copyright in General
    Copyright Research & Information Center (CRIC)
    3-20-2 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-1411 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-5353-6921 FAX: +81-3-5353-6920
    URL: http://www.cric.or.jp/cric_e/index.html


    ● Musical Works
    Japan Society for Rights of Authors, Composers and Publishers (JASRAC)
    3-6-12 Uehara, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-8540 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3481-2121 FAX: +81-3-3481-2150
    URL: http://www.jasrac.or.jp/ejhp/index.htm


    ● Novels and Scenarios
    Japan Writer's Association
    3-23 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8559 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3265-9658 FAX: +81-3-5213-5672
    URL: http://www.bungeika.or.jp/top.htm
    Writers Guild of Japan
    6-2-5 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106-0032 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3401-2304 FAX: +81-3-3401-7255
    URL: http://www.writersguild.or.jp/wgj/english/index.html
    Japan Writers Guild
    5-4-16 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0052 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3584-1901 FAX: +81-3-3584-1902
    URL: http://www.j-writersguild.org


    ● Artistic Works
    Japan Artists' Association
    3-10-19 Ginza, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0061 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3542-2581 FAX: +81-3-3545-8429
    URL: http://www.jaa-iaa.or.jp


    ● Photographic Works
    Japan Photographic Copyright Association (JPCA)
    25 Ichiban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0082 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3221-6655 FAX: +81-3-3221-6655
    URL: http://www.jpca.or.jp/english/index.htm


    ● Designs
    Japan Graphic Designers Association
    Midtown Tower 5F, 9-7-1 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-6205 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-5770-7509 FAX: +81-3-3479-7509
    URL: http://www.jagda.org/en/index.html


    ● Books and Magazines
    Japan Book Publishers Association (JBPA)
    6 Fukuro-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0828 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3268-1303 FAX: +81-3-3268-1196
    URL: http://www.jbpa.or.jp/en/index.html
    Japan Magazine Publishers Association (JMPA)
    1-7 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3291-0775 FAX: +81-3-3293-6239
    URL: http://www.j-magazine.or.jp


    ● Performances
    Japan Council of Performers' Organization
    Headquarters
    3-20-2 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-1466 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-5353-6600 FAX: +81-3-5353-6614
    URL: http://www.geidankyo.or.jp/07eng/index.html
    CPRA (Center for Performers' Rights Administration)
    3-20-2 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-1466 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3379-3571 FAX: +81-3-3379-3589
    URL: http://www.cpra.jp/web/e/activities.html


    ● Phonograms
    Recording Industry Association of Japan (RIAJ)
    2-12-16 Kita-Aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0061 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-6406-0510 FAX: +81-3-6406-0520
    URL: http://www.riaj.or.jp/e/index.html


    ● Broadcasts
    National Association of Commercial Broadcasters in Japan (NAB)
    3-23 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8577 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-5213-7717 FAX: +81-3-5213-7714
    URL: http://www.nab.or.jp/index.php?What%20is%20NAB%3F
    Nihon Hoso Kyoukai (NHK)
    NHK Rights Archives, 2-2-1 Jinnan, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8001 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3465-1111 FAX: +81-3-3481-1803
    URL: http://www.nhk.or.jp/english/


    ● Video Contents
    Japan Video Association (JVA)
    2-12-10 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3542-4433 FAX: +81-3-3542-2535
    URL: http://www.jva-net.or.jp/en/index.html


    ● Cinematographic Works
    Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan
    Nihonbashi Building 2F, 1-17-12 Nihonbashi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-0027 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3243-9100 FAX: +81-3-3243-9101
    URL: http://www.eiren.org/history_e/index.html


    ● Public Information Films
    Japan Association of Audiovisual Producers
    4-2-9 Nihonbashi-Muromachi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-0022 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3279-0236 FAX: +81-3-3279-0238
    URL: http://www.eibunren.or.jp/profile/business_e.html


    ● Private Recording Compensation Systems
    Society for the Administration of Remuneration for Audio Home Recording (sarah)
    Kojimachi YK Building 2F, 1-8-14 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3261-3444 FAX: +81-3-3261-3447
    URL: http://www.sarah.or.jp/index_e.html
    Society for the Administration of Rmuneration for Video Home Recording (SARVH)
    5-4-6 Akasaka, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0052 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3560-3107 FAX: +81-3-5570-2560
    URL: http://www.sarvh.or.jp


    ● Reprographic Rights
    Japan Reprographic Rights Center (JRRC)
    3-3-7 Kita-Aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0061 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3401-2382 FAX: +81-3-3401-2386
    URL: http://www.jrrc.or.jp/eng/index.html


    ● Computer Programs
    Association of Copyright for Computer Software (ACCS)
    5-40-18 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0012 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-5976-5175 FAX: +81-3-5976-5177
    URL: http://www2.accsjp.or.jp/en/index.html


    ● Software in General
    Software Information Center (SOFTIC)
    5-1-4 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3437-3071 FAX: +81-3-3437-3398
    URL: http://www.softic.or.jp/en/index.html


    ● Publicity Rights
    Japan Publicity Rights Protection Organization (JAPRPO)
    4-8 Yotsuya, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8501 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-3226-0984 FAX: +81-3-3226-0984
    URL: http://www.japrpo.or.jp/english/index.html


    ● Government
    Japan Copyright Office (JCO),
    Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology
    3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959 Japan
    TEL: +81-3-5253-4111 FAX: +81-3-6734-3813
    URL: http://www.bunka.go.jp/english/index.html

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